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  • xxx Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson's diseaseThe effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. 04 December 2014
  • xxx Resting activity in visual and corticostriatal pathways in Parkinson's disease with hallucinationsThis study reveals widespread hemodynamic alterations in PD. However, within a functionally abnormal occipital lobe, those with PDVH have even lower ALFF than non-hallucinators, but have higher occipital functional connectivity with cortical-striatal regions. These findings suggest disruption of pathways underpinning both primary visual perceptual and intrinsic visual integration may contribute to visual hallucinations in PD. 03 December 2014
  • xxx Reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease after a switch from oral therapy to rotigotine transdermal patch:This study suggests that a switch from oral anti-PD medications to rotigotine transdermal patch may improve existing GI symptoms among patients with PD. Additional controlled studies are needed to confirm this finding. 03 December 2014
  • xxx Levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamicsThe pharmacokinetics of l-dopa tend to predict some of problems that can emerge during chronic therapy, which can be linked with its irregular uptake and marked dose-by-dose variability in plasma concentrations. Several new pharmaceutical approaches are targeted at the unique physiology of l-dopa uptake and are likely to improve the consistency of its anti-Parkinsonian effect. 02 December 2014
  • xxx The Onset of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's disease (The ONSET PD Study)No correlation between NMS burden and motor severity, age, or gender was observed. NMS associated in four clusters: rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder symptoms-constipation, cognition-related, mood-related, and sensory clusters. No cluster was associated with a specific motor phenotype or severity. 01 December 2014
  • Man with stick The nature of tremor circuits in parkinsonian and essential tremorBased on these results we conclude that parkinsonian rest tremor is driven by a neural network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus and ventrolateral thalamus and has broad frequency-amplitude tolerance. We propose that it is this tolerance to changes in tremor frequency that dictates that parkinsonian rest tremor may be significantly entrained by low frequency stimulation without stimulation timing-dependent amplitude modulation. 01 December 2014
  • Brain skeleton activity Risk of Parkinson's disease following severe constipation: A nationwide population-based cohort studyThe association between constipation at the beginning of the study and the incidence of PD was examined using a Cox regression model. Information regarding comorbidities and concomitant medications use was adjusted in the proportional hazards models. 01 December 2014
  • Drugs Pramipexole Extended-Release: A Review of Its Use in Patients with Parkinson's DiseaseHead-to-head trials are needed in order to fully define the role of pramipexole ER relative to other once-daily formulations of DAs (oral ropinirole and transdermal rotigotine). Nonetheless, by reducing the pill burden, the ER formulation of pramipexole provides a more convenient alternative to the IR formulation; studies specifically testing whether this translates into improved patient compliance and symptom control are worthwhile. 01 December 2014
  • Brain skeleton Neural correlates of progressive reduction of bradykinesia in de novo Parkinson's diseaseResults suggest that the ACC and the cerebellum (inferior semilunar lobule) are associated with the severity of SE. Taken together with DTI findings, the present study proposes that ACC may have an important role. Our data show that the caudate dopaminergic activity may be related to SE. 01 December 2014
  • Brain scan Mendelian randomization of serum urate and Parkinson's disease progressionThe study was conducted among participants in DATATOP and PRECEPT, two randomized trials among patients with early PD. The 808 patients with available DNA were genotyped for three SLC2A9 single nucleotide polymorphisms that identify an allele associated with lower urate concentrations, and for selected SNPs in other genes encoding urate transporters that have modest or no effect on serum urate levels. 01 December 2014
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