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  • Neuron Parkinson's disease severity levels and MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating ScaleScores of more detailed assessments, as the MDS-UPDRS, have not been translated to a grading that allows assignment of score sections to severity levels. The objective of the present study is to determine cut-off points for PD severity levels based on the MDS-UPDRS. 05 November 2014
  • Neuron Neurotransmitter receptor density changes in Pitx3ak mice A model relevant to Parkinson's diseaseAuthors demonstrated striking differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities for numerous receptor types and brain regions, respectively. Most prominent, a strong up-regulation of GABA receptors and associated benzodiazepine binding sites in different brain regions and concomitant down-regulations of striatal nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonergic receptor densities were found. 05 November 2014
  • DNA Head injury, α-synuclein genetic variability and Parkinson's diseaseThe study finds some evidence that head injury and D4S3481 or rs356165 variants jointly increase the risk of PD but little evidence of interaction. 05 November 2014
  • Neuron Effects of Endurance Exercise Training on The Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson's Disease: A ReviewConclusion: Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is a need for well-designed large-scale randomized controlled trials to confirm benefits and safety of endurance exercise training in PD and to explore potential benefits on the motor and non-motor signs of PD. 05 November 2014
  • Clasped hands Apathy in untreated early-stage Parkinson disease: Relationship with other non-motor symptomsApathetic patients had significantly more severe motor symptoms (P < 0.001) and a lower cognitive status (P = 0.032) than non-apathetic patients. When considering non-motor symptoms, apathy was significantly associated only with fatigue (P = 0.007) and anhedonia (P = 0.010), both of which were more prevalent in apathetic patients than in non-apathetic patients. 05 November 2014
  • Neuron Drp1 inhibition attenuates neurotoxicity and dopamine release deficits in vivoSpecifically, authors show that inhibition of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) using gene-based and small-molecule approaches attenuates neurotoxicity and restores pre-existing striatal dopamine release deficits in these animal models. These results suggest Drp1 inhibition as a potential treatment for PD. 05 November 2014
  • Brain scan Imaging prodromal Parkinson disease: The Parkinson Associated Risk Syndrome StudyConclusion: Subjects with DAT deficit who do not meet criteria for a diagnosis of PD can be identified by olfactory testing. Sequential biomarker assessment may identify those at risk of PD. 04 November 2014
  • Clasped hands Action tremor in Parkinson's disease: frequency and relationship to motor and non-motor signsConclusions: Action tremor is a relatively frequent motor sign in patients with Parkinson's disease staging 12 on the HoehnYahr scale. Action tremor correlates with rest tremor and rigidity and may be associated with a lower burden of non-motor symptoms. These findings suggest a contribution of non-dopaminergic mechanisms to action tremor pathophysiology. 03 November 2014
  • Quality of Life Friends Couple walking in woods Which features of Parkinson's Disease Predict Earlier Exit from the Workforce?Conclusion: Demographics, disease duration, and mental health contribute to LWF, but not motor severity. Age, gender and income contributions are difficult to modify but important to recognize. Worse baseline mental health is associated with LWF, suggesting a potential target for intervention. 01 November 2014
  • Neuron The Future of Research in Parkinson DiseaseThere are many unanswered questions about Parkinson disease (PD), but as a result of advances in genetics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenetics, imaging, and other novel techniques, remarkable progress is being made. In this Viewpoint, authors will highlight aspects of future research aimed at addressing the following critical questions. 01 November 2014
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