Skip Navigation

The EPDA and healthcare professionals

One of the EPDA’s four strategic goals is “to strive for healthcare systems where people with Parkinson’s receive early and appropriate treatment and individualised care”. On a practical level, this objective can be achieved by ensuring European healthcare professionals (HCPs) get access to high-quality educational resources about Parkinson's.

This section of our website is therefore aimed specifically at HCPs (neurologists, family doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and other members of the Parkinson's multidisciplinary care team). It displays informative and educational resources developed by our partners that can help HCPs better understand and manage the different and complex aspects of Parkinson’s.

Sharing information and good practices has always been a key EPDA focus; we would therefore be happy to work with other Parkinson’s-related professionals, research institutions, treatment industry companies and non-profit organisations that have high-quality resources to share. If you or your organisation have developed resources aimed at informing and educating HCPs about Parkinson’s, please contact

Find out more about our strategic goals.

Resources from the Lundbeck Institute Campus

The Lundbeck Institute Campus (LIC) is an educational website developed for HCPs, created in 2016 by the Danish pharmaceutical company, Lundbeck. It aims to bring a growing wealth of knowledge under one roof, and offers expertise on several topics that are central to psychiatry and neurology – including Parkinson's disease.

The resources listed below are part of the LIC library of materials focusing on Parkinson's disease. For more information, visit the LIC website.

Slide library

Here you will find a set of interactive slideshow presentations about the cardinal aspects of Parkinson's, including infographics and extensive references to external sources – to be used for learning and teaching needs.

Lundbeck Slide1

Parkinson's disease – History, definition and diagnosis


Lundbeck Slide2

Parkinson's disease – Epidemiology and burden


Lundbeck Slide3

Parkinson's disease – Neurobiology and aetiology


Lundbeck Slide4

Parkinson's disease – Course, natural history and prognosis



In this section, you will find scientific articles about Parkinson's symptoms, history and management – written by healthcare professionals and academics specialised about the condition.


Value of Treatment, 2017

Professor David Nutt, psychiatrist at the Imperial College, London, talks about the Value of Treatment initiative developed by the European Brain Council (EBC) – focusing on the cost of brain disorders (including Parkinson's) and how to optimise the treatments for these conditions.


Two centuries of struggle to define "a tedious and most distressing malady”, 2017

It was in 1817 that James Parkinson first described the condition that carries his name, and we are still refining the diagnostic criteria. What did Parkinson himself say about the characteristics of the disease, and how has recent research modified our understanding?

Disease atlas

Below you will discover an interactive disease atlas, presenting statistics on prevalence and burden of disease for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression and schizophrenia.

The tool allows to select and compare data by simply clicking on countries in the map, and to view figures regarding prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic impact of each condition.


The content displayed in this section has been produced by the Lundbeck Institute Campus (LIC). The EPDA is sharing these resources for information purposes only; they do not represent the EPDA’s views and are not an endorsement by the EPDA of any particular treatments, therapies or products. The EPDA would like to thank Lundbeck and LIC for granting us permission to use the materials included in this section 2.

Copyright notice

H. Lundbeck A/S holds copyright for all the materials included in this section 2. For further information about disseminating such materials, please contact

Video resources

This section includes a list of educational videos aimed at healthcare professionals, describing and explaining important aspects of Parkinson's symptoms, treatment and management.

These video resources were developed by different institutions, companies and medical/scientific journals and media agencies.

Videos by Oruen

Early vs late use of levodopa – Angelo Antonini, 2019

Prof Angelo Antonini discusses the early vs late use of levodopa, the clinical consequences of delaying its use, and how levodopa treatment can be optimised to accomplish much more stable response and long-lasting benefits.

Early use of levodopa vs levodopa-sparing strategies – Joaquim Ferreira, 2019

Prof Joaquim Ferreira discusses about choosing the best approach to treat patients with early signs of Parkinson’s, the different options in terms of medicines and the importance of early treatment.

Recognition and management of wearing off utilisation of COMT inhibitors – Olivier Rascol, 2019

Prof Olivier Rascol talks about wearing off of levodopa medication, and the effect it has on the quality of life of people with Parkinson's (particularly in regards to non-motor symptoms), and highlights different treatment options, including the use of COMT inhibitors.

Repositioning COMT inhibitors and response duration in levodopa optimisation – Werner Poewe, Angelo Antonini, Olivier Rascol, 2019

Prof Werner Poewe, prof Angelo Antonini and prof Olivier Rascol talk about Parkinson’s treatment problems, focussing on the role of levodopa and the mechanisms behind motor complications (in particular wearing off), as well as on available strategies to treat these problems, highlighting the role of COMT inhibitors.

Diagnosis and management of levodopa response fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease – Werner Poewe, 2020

Prof Werner Poewe discusses about how clinicians diagnose and treat motor fluctuations in people with Parkinson's, and the use of levodopa in relation to 'on-off' periods.

The impact of COVID-19 for families with Parkinson’s disease – Bas Bloem, 2020

Prof Bas Bloem highlights several potential consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with Parkinson's and their families. In particular, Prof Bloem focuses on the impact that the preventive social measures to mitigate the risk of becoming infected can have on people with Parkinson's in terms of stress, reduction of physical activity and worsening of non-motor symptoms.

A2A receptor antagonists: potential adjuvant therapies for levodopa optimisation – Werner Poewe, Per Odin, Angelo Antonini

Prof Werner Poewe, Prof Per Odin and Prof Angelo Antonini discuss about the current status of approved treatments for motor fluctuations in Parkinson's, highlighting the potential benefits of A2A receptor antagonists as adjuvant therapies for levodopa.

Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease recognition and management – Per Odin

Prof Per Odin talks about Parkinson's non-motor symptoms, focusing in particular or symptoms such as fatigue and pain, on the impact of advanced Parkinson's treatment on such symptoms, and on how clinicians address these issues.

Need of second-line therapies in advanced Parkinson’s disease – Ángel Sesar-Ignacio

Dr Sesar-Ignacio talks about factors involved in the management of advanced Parkinson’s, highlighting the possible need for the neurologist to combine deep brain stimulation (DBS) with infusion therapy or to prescribe two different second-line treatments.

Living With Parkinson’s – The impact of treatment choices – Werner Poewe, Angelo Antonini, Pablo Mir

Prof Poewe, Prof Antonini and Prof Mir discuss the role of non-oral, device-aided therapies as potential treatments in advanced Parkinson's.

Role, function and effect of Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase in humans and Parkinson's disease – Fabrizio Stocchi

Prof Stocchi describes the COMT mechanism of action in humans and the areas of the brain involved and explains the pharmacokinetics of levodopa and the effect of the addition of a COMT inhibitor, highlighting current pivotal trials of COMT inhibitor drugs.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Tailoring levodopa according to patient characteristics: duo interview – Werner Poewe and Bas Bloem

Prof Poewe and Prof Bloem discuss the importance of response fluctuations in treatment with levodopa, and the important role of the multidisciplinary team in the care of people living with Parkinson's.

Motor symptoms and therapy choices – advanced Parkinson’s disease – Bas Bloem, Per Odin, Olivier Rascol

Moderated by Prof Bloem, Prof Odin and Prof Rascol discuss when treatment options need to be addressed to improve motor function in Parkinson's, focusing on how device-aided therapies can be used to improve the patients' quality of life.

Optimising ON time – advanced Parkinson’s disease – Donald Grosset, Fabrizio Stocchi, Joaquim Ferreira

Moderated by Prof Grosset, Prof Stocchi and Prof Ferreira discuss treatment option for advanced Parkinson's, particularly focusing on how to improve on time with the use of non-oral and device-aided therapies.

Videos by touchNEUROLOGY

Beyond motor wearing-OFF: What have we learned? – Werner Poewe, EAN 2019

Prof Werner Poewe (Medical University Innsbruck, Austria) answers the following questions on the topic of wearing off:

  1. What are the more recent scientific findings that have shaped our understanding of wearing off?
  2. What are the new trends in the management of wearing off?
  3. Currently, what are the most important unmet clinical needs with regard to wearing off?

The spectrum of wearing-OFF: motor features – Angelo Antonini, EAN 2019

Prof Angelo Antonini (University of Padova, Veneto, Italy) answers the following questions on the topic of wearing off and motor features:

  1. What are the most impactful motor symptoms that you would expect to see during off state in patients receiving dopaminergic therapy?
  2. Are these motor symptoms present consistently or do they vary during different stages of the disease?
  3. Is dopaminergic therapy useful for the management of these symptoms?
  4. How important is an accurate and early diagnosis of wearing off and what tools are available to help physicians?

The spectrum of wearing-OFF: non-motor features – K Ray Chaudhuri, EAN 2019

Prof K Ray Chaudhuri (King’s College and King’s College Hospital, London, UK) answers the following questions on the topic of wearing off and non-motor features:

  1. What are the most impactful non-motor symptoms that you would expect to see during off state in patients receiving dopaminergic therapy?
  2. Do these non-motor symptoms occur in the on state with the same severity?
  3. Are these symptoms present consistently or do they vary during different stages of the disease?
  4. How impactful are these non-motor symptoms on a patient’s daily activities and quality of life?
  5. How important is an accurate and early diagnosis of wearing off and what tools are available to help physicians?

Non-invasive treatment for wearing off – María C Rodríguez-Oroz, EAN 2019

Prof María C Rodríguez-Oroz (University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain) answers the following questions on the topic of non-invasive treatment options for wearing off in Parkinson's:

  1. Do you consider a levodopa sparing strategy a valid approach in delaying emergence of motor complications, such as wearing off?
  2. Would you consider using add-on therapy as the first approach for wearing off?
  3. What are the advantages of introducing a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor rather than increasing the patient’s intake of levodopa?
  4. In your opinion, what promising new adjunct therapies are currently available or in development for the treatment of wearing off in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

Share this page

Back to top